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In a second study forthcoming in the Journal of Financial Economics (available at Randy Heron of Indiana University and I examined the stock price pattern around ESO grants before and after a new SEC requirement in August of 2002 that option grants must be reported within two business days.
The graph below shows the dramatic effect of this new requirement on the lag between the grant and filing dates.
The number of shares subject to option was 250,000 and the exercise price was (the trough in the stock price graph below.) Given a year-end price of , the intrinsic value of the options at the end of the year was (-) x 250,000 = ,750,000.
In comparison, had the options been granted at the year-end price when the decision to grant to options actually might have been made, the year-end intrinsic value would have been zero.
In a study that I started in 2003 and disseminated in the first half of 2004 and that was published in Management Science in May 2005 (available at I found that stock prices also tend to decrease before the grants.
Furthermore, the pre-and post-grant price pattern has intensified over time (see graph below).
This pioneering study was published in the Journal of Finance in 1997, and is definitely worth reading.Unfortunately, our website is currently unavailable in most European countries.