Dating neutron lv
Moreover, SWC is a key parameter in helping understand and predicting the timing and severity of natural disasters such as drought [6–8] and landslides [9, 10].
Given the importance of SWC observations for understanding energy balance, water balance, and natural disasters, a wide variety of national and state level monitoring networks using point sensors (i.e., Soil Climate Analysis Network, Climate Reference Network, Oklahoma Mesonet, Automated Weather Data Network, etc.) have been established along with remote sensing from airborne (i.e., Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface) and satellite platforms (i.e., Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity, Soil Moisture Active Passive) [cf. However, a significant gap still exists in fully reconciling differences between point observations with remote sensing  given the natural heterogeneity  and spatial organization SWC fields exhibit .
Here we will investigate the use of the CRNP in a patchy agricultural landscape with mixed winter and summer crops in northeast Austria and compare the landscape average SWC against an independent in situ Time-Domain Transmissivity (TDT) monitoring network.
Given the elevation of the study site (277 m.a.s.l.) and absolute humidity measurements, the effective CRNP radius will be ~300 m  and will be adopted for this work herein.In this work, we will explore the use of the indirect Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP)  for providing a landscape average SWC value in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.The CRNP method was recently developed with its main applications in academic research through the establishment of national monitoring networks in the USA , Australia , UK, and South Africa, with probe installations mostly concentrated in natural ecosystems.Figure 2: (a) Location of 16 land use parcels within the 300 m radial CRNP footprint (see Table 1 for planting, soil cultivation, and harvest information).
(b) Location of 16 TDT site profiles (probe measurement depths at 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 15–20 cm, and 45–50 cm) within the 300 m radial CRNP footprint.
An accurate understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of near surface soil water content (SWC) is essential for a greater understanding of the surface energy balance , the degree of land surface atmospheric coupling [2, 3] and improvements in short-term weather forecasting .